We were able to demonstrate in a randomized intervention trial that dancing has a strong potential to induce more positive effects on brain volumes in elderly people. Previous research has mainly focused on other, more monotonic aerobic exercises such as running, walking, cycling (endurance training) or on anaerobic strength and stretching exercises. Compared to these standard fitness programs, our specially designed six-month dancing program increased volumes in regions which relate to higher cognitive processes such as working memory and attention and which are especially affected by age-related decline. In our view, the more pronounced effects of dancing on the human brain can be explained by the fact that dancing promotes a large number of processes at the same time: spatial orientation, movement coordination, balance, endurance, interaction and communication. Furthermore, by presenting our participants with ever new choreographies, our program induced a constant learning processes. This dance training program does not need special requirements, has a low risk of accidents and can be implemented at low costs. Therefore, it endorses itself as an appropriate measure to counteract age-related declines in brain structure.